Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR

DRUG DESCRIPTION

ACTOPLUS MET® (pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride) tablets contain two oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes: pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride. The concomitant use of pioglitazone and metformin has been previously approved based on clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin. Additional efficacy and safety information about pioglitazone and metformin monotherapies may be found in the prescribing information for each individual drug.

Pioglitazone hydrochloride is an oral antihyperglycemic agent that acts primarily by decreasing insulin resistance. Pioglitazone is used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological studies indicate that pioglitazone improves sensitivity to insulin in muscle and adipose tissue and inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. Pioglitazone improves glycemic control while reducing circulating insulin levels.

Pioglitazone [(±)-5-[[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-] thiazolidinedione monohydrochloride belongs to a different chemical class and has a different pharmacological action than the sulfonylureas, biguanides, or the ?-glucosidase inhibitors. The molecule contains one asymmetric center, and the synthetic compound is a racemate. The two enantiomers of pioglitazone interconvert in vivo. The structural formula is as shown:

Pioglitazone hydrochloride Structural Formula Illustration

Pioglitazone hydrochloride

Pioglitazone hydrochloride is an odorless white crystalline powder that has a molecular formula of C19H20N2O3S•HCl and a molecular weight of 392.90. It is soluble in N,N?­ dimethylformamide, slightly soluble in anhydrous ethanol, very slightly soluble in acetone and acetonitrile, practically insoluble in water, and insoluble in ether.

Metformin hydrochloride (N,N -dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder with a molecular formula of C4H11N5•HCl and a molecular weight of 165.62. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:


Metformin hydrochloride

ACTOPLUS MET is available as a tablet for oral administration containing 15 mg pioglitazone hydrochloride (as the base) with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride (15 mg/500 mg) or 15 mg pioglitazone hydrochloride (as the base) with 850 mg metformin hydrochloride (15 mg/850 mg) formulated with the following excipients: povidone USP, microcrystalline cellulose NF, croscarmellose sodium NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose 2910 USP, polyethylene glycol 8000 NF, titanium dioxide USP, and talc USP.

What are the possible side effects of metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus Met)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these symptoms of lactic acidosis: weakness, increasing sleepiness, slow heart rate, cold feeling, muscle pain, shortness of breath, stomach pain, feeling light-headed, and fainting.

Stop using metformin and pioglitazone and get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

    ...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR »

What are the precautions when taking pioglitazone hcl and metformin hcl (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?

See also Warning section.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to pioglitazone or metformin; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe breathing problems (such as obstructive lung disease, severe asthma), metabolic acidosis (such as diabetic ketoacidosis), blood problems (such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency), kidney disease, liver disease, heart disease (such as congestive heart failure, chest pain), fluid in your lungs, swelling (edema), a certain eye problem (macular...

Read All Potential Precautions of Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR »


Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: See also Warning section.

Nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, diarrhea, weakness, sore throat, muscle pain, weight gain, tooth problems or a metallic taste in the mouth may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. If stomach symptoms return later (after taking the same dose for several days or weeks), tell your doctor immediately. Stomach symptoms that occur after the first days of your treatment may be signs of lactic acidosis.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if either of these serious side effects occurs: new/worsening vision problems (such as blurred vision), bone fracture.

Pioglitazone may rarely cause liver disease. Tell your doctor right away if you develop symptoms of liver disease, including: dark urine, yellowing of eyes/skin, persistent nausea/vomiting, stomach/abdominal pain.

This medication usually does not cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Low blood sugar may occur if this drug is prescribed with other anti-diabetic medications (such as insulin or a sulfonylurea). Low blood sugar is more likely if you drink large amounts of alcohol, do unusually heavy exercise, or do not consume enough calories from food. To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal.

Symptoms of low blood sugar include sudden sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, rapidly raise your blood sugar by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink fruit juice or non-diet soda. Tell your doctor right away about the reaction and the use of this product.

Symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) include thirst, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, flushing, rapid breathing, or fruity breath odor. If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor right away. Your dosage may need to be increased.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

PRECAUTIONS: See also Warning section.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to pioglitazone or metformin; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe breathing problems (such as obstructive lung disease, severe asthma), metabolic acidosis (such as diabetic ketoacidosis), blood problems (such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency), kidney disease, liver disease, heart disease (such as congestive heart failure, chest pain), fluid in your lungs, swelling (edema), a certain eye problem (macular edema).

Before having surgery or any X-ray/scanning procedure using injectable iodinated contrast material, tell your doctor that you are taking this medication. You will need to temporarily stop this medication before the time of your surgery/procedure. Consult your doctor for further instructions.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

You may experience blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar levels. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness or clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

Limit alcohol while using this medication because it can increase your risk of lactic acidosis and developing low blood sugar.

High fever, "water pills" (diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide), too much sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting may cause loss of too much body water (dehydration) and increase your risk of lactic acidosis. Stop taking this medication and tell your doctor right away if you have prolonged diarrhea or vomiting. Be sure to drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration unless your doctor directs you otherwise.

It may be harder to control your blood sugar when your body is stressed (such as due to fever, infection, injury, or surgery). Consult your doctor because increased stress may require a change in your treatment plan, medications, or blood sugar testing.

Pioglitazone may increase the risk of bone fracture in women (usually in the upper arm, hand, or foot). See also Notes section.

Older adults may be at greater risk for side effects such as low blood sugar or lactic acidosis.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Your doctor may direct you to use insulin instead of this product during your pregnancy. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully.

This medication can cause changes in the menstrual cycle (promote ovulation) and increase the risk of becoming pregnant. Consult your doctor or pharmacist about the use of reliable birth control while using this medication.

Metformin passes into breast milk in small amounts. It is unknown if pioglitazone passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.


Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Actoplus Met

Generic Name: metformin and pioglitazone (Pronunciation: met FOR min and PYE o GLI ta zone)

  • What is metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What are the possible side effects of metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • How should I take metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What should I avoid while taking metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • What other drugs will affect metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?

Metformin and pioglitazone is a combination of two oral diabetes medicines that help control blood sugar levels.

Metformin and pioglitazone is for people with type 2 diabetes who do not use daily insulin injections. This medication is not for treating type 1 diabetes.

Metformin and pioglitazone may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these symptoms of lactic acidosis: weakness, increasing sleepiness, slow heart rate, cold feeling, muscle pain, shortness of breath, stomach pain, feeling light-headed, and fainting.

Stop using metformin and pioglitazone and get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
  • swelling or rapid weight gain; or
  • nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • sneezing, runny nose, cough or other signs of a cold;
  • dizziness;
  • headache;
  • mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain; or
  • joint or muscle pain.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is the most important information I should know about metformin and pioglitazone (Actoplus MET, Actoplus MET XR)?

Do not use metformin and pioglitazone if you have kidney disease, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin).

Before taking metformin and pioglitazone, tell your doctor if you have congestive heart failure or heart disease, a history of heart attack or stroke, liver disease, or eye problems caused by diabetes.

Some people have developed a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis while taking metformin and pioglitazone. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these symptoms of lactic acidosis: weakness, increasing sleepiness, slow heart rate, cold feeling, muscle pain, shortness of breath, stomach pain, feeling light-headed, and fainting.

If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you may need to temporarily stop taking metformin and pioglitazone. Be sure the surgeon knows ahead of time that you are using this medication.

Take care not to let your blood sugar get too low, causing hypoglycemia. You may have hypoglycemia if you skip a meal, exercise too long, drink alcohol, or are under stress.

Some women using metformin and pioglitazone have started having menstrual periods, even after not having a period for a long time due to a medical condition. You may be able to get pregnant if your periods restart. Talk with your doctor about the need for birth control.

Taking certain oral diabetes medications may increase your risk of serious heart problems. However, not treating your diabetes can damage your heart and other organs. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of treating your diabetes with metformin and pioglitazone.

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