Kayexalate

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Kayexalate, brand of sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a benzene, diethenyl-polymer, with ethenylbenzene, sulfonated, sodium salt and has the following structural formula:

Kayexalate® 
   (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) Structural Formula Illustration

The drug is a cream to light brown finely ground, powdered form of sodium polystyrene sulfonate, a cation-exchange resin prepared in the sodium phase with an in vitro exchange capacity of approximately 3.1 mEq (in vivo approximately 1 mEq) of potassium per gram. The sodium content is approximately 100 mg (4.1 mEq) per gram of the drug. It can be administered orally or in an enema.

What are the possible side effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Kionex)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your caregivers right away if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • pain or fluttering in your chest;
  • uneven heartbeats;
  • feeling irritable or confused;
  • increased thirst or urination;
  • severe muscle weakness;
  • inability to move your muscles;
  • black, bloody, or...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Kayexalate »

What are the precautions when taking sodium polystyrene (Kayexalate)?

Before using sodium polystyrene sulfonate, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: blockage of the stomach/intestines, low level of potassium in the blood.

This medication contains a large amount of salt (sodium). If you have any of these conditions listed below, follow your doctor's instructions for limiting the amount of sodium in your diet. Do not use salt substitutes that contain potassium without asking your doctor...

Read All Potential Precautions of Kayexalate »


Kayexalate Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or constipation may occur. Diarrhea may occur less frequently. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

To prevent constipation, maintain a diet adequate in fiber, drink plenty of water, and exercise, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for help in selecting a laxative. Certain laxatives should not be taken with this medication. See the Drug Interactions section.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: muscle weakness/spasms, irregular heartbeat, mental/mood changes (such as irritability, confusion, slowed thinking), swelling hands/ankles/feet.

Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: severe constipation, bloating/swelling/pain in the stomach/abdomen, black/bloody stools, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, inability to move your muscles (paralysis), seizures.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

PRECAUTIONS: Before using sodium polystyrene sulfonate, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: blockage of the stomach/intestines, low level of potassium in the blood.

This medication contains a large amount of salt (sodium). If you have any of these conditions listed below, follow your doctor's instructions for limiting the amount of sodium in your diet. Do not use salt substitutes that contain potassium without asking your doctor first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: other stomach/intesine/bowel problems (such as inflammatory bowel disease), kidney problems, heart failure, high blood pressure, swelling hands/ankles/feet.

Older adults may be at greater risk for severe constipation.

This medication must not be given by mouth to newborns. Also, newborns with slow gut function must not use this drug. Newborns and children may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially severe constipation and intestinal problems.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk, and the effect on a nursing infant is unknown. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.


Kayexalate Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Kayexalate, Kionex

Generic Name: sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Pronunciation: SOE dee um pol ee STEER een SUL foe nate)

  • What is sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • What are the possible side effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • How is sodium polystyrene sulfonate given (Kayexalate)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Kayexalate)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Kayexalate)?
  • What should I avoid while receiving sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • What other drugs will affect sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate affects the exchange of sodium and potassium in the body.

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat high levels of potassium in the blood, also called hyperkalemia.

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate may also be used for purposes other than those listed here.

What are the possible side effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your caregivers right away if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • pain or fluttering in your chest;
  • uneven heartbeats;
  • feeling irritable or confused;
  • increased thirst or urination;
  • severe muscle weakness;
  • inability to move your muscles;
  • black, bloody, or tarry stools;
  • pain in your lower stomach or rectum; or
  • swelling, rapid weight gain.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • diarrhea or constipation;
  • nausea or vomiting;
  • upset stomach; or
  • loss of appetite.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is the most important information I should know about sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)?

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate can be given as a liquid by mouth, through a stomach feeding tube, or as a rectal enema. This medication is usually given 1 to 4 times daily by a healthcare professional in a hospital setting.

If possible, before you receive this medication, tell your doctor if you have a bowel obstruction, low blood levels of potassium, heart disease or high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, edema (water weight gain), kidney disease, or if you are constipated or on a low-salt diet.

In an emergency situation, it may not be possible before you are treated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate to tell your caregivers about any health conditions you have or if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. However, make sure any doctor caring for your pregnancy or your baby knows that you have received this medication.

Tell your caregivers right away if you have any signs that your potassium level is getting too low, such as: pain or fluttering in your chest, uneven heartbeats, feeling irritable or confused, severe muscle weakness, breathing problems, or inability to move your muscles.

Tell your doctor if you also take digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), thyroxine, or a diuretic (water pill).

Do not use salt substitutes or take potassium or calcium supplements unless your doctor has told you to. Avoid using antacids or laxatives without your doctor's advice.

You will need to keep using this medication even if you feel fine. Hyperkalemia often has no symptoms that you will notice.

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  • Kayexalate
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